Practice makes perfect: Dendritic Pruning & LTP

Dendritic trees

It was about two years ago today, when I began to get a clearer picture of how the cells of the brain physically change as a result of our thoughts, experiences and actions. The mind is a result of a network of billions of individual brain cells, neurons, that exchange information with each other; much of the communication between neurons occurs through structures known as dendrites. These tree-like structures emerge from the main body of a neuron, the tips of each branch exchanging information with other neurons. As we develop habits & recurring thoughts, the neurons who communicate the most with each other begin to strengthen the dendritic branches that connect them. Simultaneously, the connections between neurons who don’t often speak with one another begins to atrophy, the dendrites start to prune themselves. These processes together encompass the much larger idea of neuroplasticity, the idea that our brain physically changes and adapts.

Dendritic Pruning

One of the best examples of this concept can be seen when drendritic trees of young mammals are compared with adults, we see extensive branching on the younger brains relative to the adults, supporting the idea that with experience unused connections are pruned off. One proposed mechanism by which the brain is capable of such adaptability is long term potentiation (LTP). The speed of neural communication is largely attributed to the electro-chemical nature of the transmission, allowing for large chunks of information to be rapidly shared across networks of millions of cells every second. LTP is a specific pattern of signaling between neurons where hundreds of bursts of electrical currents of a particular frequency are sent between two neurons; resulting in enhanced communication between the two neurons and strengthening of the dendrites involved, from that point onward. There’s a decent amount of speculation currently, looking to LTP as the mechanism by which our neurons prune their dendritic trees. What this means for you & me: the more we repeat an action or thought, the more the neurons involved in that process communicate with one other, resulting in a streamlining & strengthening of the connections between them; by the same token, routine will cause the number of neurons who can communicate with each other to degrade, possibly limiting what we can learn and understand as we age.

A: Neuron of Child | B: Neuron of Adult

More than ever before, we can observe how our physical minds change as a result of our actions and have a measurable candidate for the mechanism behind this adaptability. If the 20th century belonged to physics, the last several decades to genomics, it may not be a stretch to see the recent future of science be dominated with answering the questions of neuroplasticity and our minds as a physical structure.

Citations:
Yi Zuo, Guang Yang, Elaine Kwon & Wen-Biao Gan (2005). Long-term sensory deprivation prevents dendritic spine loss in primary somatosensory cortex Nature, 436 : 10.1038/nature0371
Kelly D. Hartle, Matthew S. Jeffers, Tammy L. Ivanc (2010). Changes in dendritic morphology and spine density in motor cortex of the adult rat after stroke during infancy. Synapse, 9999 (9999A) : 10.1002/syn.20767
Daniel McGowan (2006). Pruning processes Nature Reviews Neuroscience : 10.1038/nrn1997

6 Comments

Filed under Neurophysiology, Neuroscience

6 responses to “Practice makes perfect: Dendritic Pruning & LTP

  1. This post rocks! Glad to see we have some ridiculously smart minds among us at the farm. We’re gonna need them to start drawing our understanding out of the natural world to understand our own inner “natural world”. Those pruning concepts bring up a psych 101 fact I learned in undergrad. We’re born with more connections that we have as we age, not only are connections reinforced, they are pruned, recreated and often can be pruned and recreated again multiple times in a lifetime as we learn, forget and relearn things.

    Peace and see you on the farm,
    C

  2. J.L. Bloats

    I protest pruning in all forms! Bocknaggler, I say to the channels Na + & Ca2+! Connecting to even the most droll dendritic mouth breather that can regurgitate the fresh hockle-strocky on the minds of millions to the souls of billions! Reassociation creates a standardization. Menial mental mayhem worked thus far… We would all like to dance with the seven fingered lady, but there are rules and regulations to this factory of life. If every Jon Q. Neuron could swing to the left, and swing to the right- there would be no organic chaos- a waste of good light.

  3. Joey

    So do you hope to isolate the “epiphany center” of the brain and learn to stimulate it, or find where the ignorant brain lacks structure and develop it’s synapses?

  4. Joey

    Cool posts. The articles seem to be building up to something… I can’t wait to see what that is :).

  5. Valerie

    Wow, I had no idea that dendtritic pruning played such a part in our every day lives and communication.

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